Autoimmune pancreatitis is a distinct form of pancreatitis characterized clinically by frequent presentation with obstructive jaundice with or without a pancreatic mass, histologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and fibrosis and therapeutically by a dramatic response to steroids. Continue reading “International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis (AIP)”
Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis.
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Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) accounts for 2%-12% of all cases of diabetes. Patients are typically diagnosed after 35 years of age and are often misdiagnosed as type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Glycemic control is initially achieved with sulfonylureas, but patients eventually become insulin dependent more rapidly than with type II DM patients.
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Two criteria must be diagnose AIHA: serologic evidence of an autoantibody and clinical or laboratory evidence of hemolysis. Serologic evidence of an autoantibody is provided by positive autocontrol and direct antiglobulin test (DAT, direct Coombs´ test) results and subsequent identification of an autoantibody in the RBC eluate and possibly the serum. Serum reactivity with autologous RBCs generally indicates the presence of an autoantibody, but it does not exclude the presence of an autoantibody.
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Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by dysregulation of the immune system due to an inability to regulate lymphocyte homeostasis through the process of lymphocyte apoptosis (a form of programmed cell death). The consequences of this include lymphoproliferative disease, manifested by lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and an increased risk of lymphoma, as well as autoimmune disease, typically involving blood cells.
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Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by inflammatory liver histology, circulating non-organ-specific autoantibodies, and increased levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G in the absence of a known etiology.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH)”