Gas, bloating, and belching are associated with a variety of conditions but are most commonly caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders are characterized by disordered motility and visceral hypersensitivity that are often worsened by psychological distress. Continue reading “Rome IV Diagnostic Criteria for Belching Disorders”
Nausea is a subjective symptom and can be defined as an unpleasant sensation of the imminent need to vomit, typically experienced in the epigastrium or throat. Vomiting refers to the forceful oral expulsion of gastrointestinal contents associated with contraction of the abdominal and chest wall muscles. Continue reading “Rome IV Diagnostic Criteria for Nausea and Vomiting Disorders”
The esophageal motility disorders are categorized as secondary and primary disorders. The pathogenesis of secondary motility disorders is associated with systemic diseases.
Continue reading “Characteristics of Esophageal Motility Disorders”
Hypertensive disorders are common during pregnancy and can be classified into four pregnancy-associated categories: (1) chronic hypertension, (2) gestational hypertension, (3) preeclampsia, and (4) chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. In addition, non-pregnancy associated hypertensive emergencies can occur in the pregnant patient. Continue reading “Acute Hypertensive Definitions in the Pregnant Patient”