Classification of Caustic-Induced Gastrointestinal Injuries

Caustic substances injure tissue by means of a chemical reaction on direct physical contact. Often thought of as acids or bases, caustics broadly include desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The term “corrosive” is often used interchangeably with “caustic,” but corrosion implies a mechanical degradation, which does not always apply to caustics. Continue reading

Classification of Ulcer-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

The Forrest classification is a widely used classification of ulcer-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It was initially developed to unify the description of ulcer bleeding for better communication amongst endoscopists. However, the Forrest Classification is now used as a tool to identify patients who are at an increased risk for bleeding, rebleeding and mortality. Continue reading

Criteria for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is common and potentially life-threatening and needs a prompt assessment and aggressive medical management. All patients need to undergo endoscopy to diagnose, assess, and possibly treat any underlying lesion.
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The Glasgow-Blatchford Bleeding Score (GBS) for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

The Glasgow Blatchford Score (GBS) is a pre-endoscopic risk assessment tool for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH). It can predict need for intervention or death and identifies low risk patients suitable for out-patient management.
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Appropriate Indications for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (UGE)

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a standard technique that provides direct visualization of the gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus through the stomach, duodenal bulb, and descending duodenum.
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ROME II Diagnostic Criteria for Childhood Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

The diagnosis of a Childhood Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder always presumes the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms.

G1.Vomiting

G1a. Infant Regurgitation Continue reading