Caustic substances injure tissue by means of a chemical reaction on direct physical contact. Often thought of as acids or bases, caustics broadly include desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The term “corrosive” is often used interchangeably with “caustic,” but corrosion implies a mechanical degradation, which does not always apply to caustics. Continue reading “Classification of Caustic-Induced Gastrointestinal Injuries”
The Forrest classification is a widely used classification of ulcer-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It was initially developed to unify the description of ulcer bleeding for better communication amongst endoscopists. However, the Forrest Classification is now used as a tool to identify patients who are at an increased risk for bleeding, rebleeding and mortality. Continue reading “Classification of Ulcer-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding”
Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is common and potentially life-threatening and needs a prompt assessment and aggressive medical management. All patients need to undergo endoscopy to diagnose, assess, and possibly treat any underlying lesion.
Continue reading “Criteria for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage”
The Glasgow Blatchford Score (GBS) is a pre-endoscopic risk assessment tool for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH). It can predict need for intervention or death and identifies low risk patients suitable for out-patient management.
Continue reading “The Glasgow-Blatchford Bleeding Score (GBS) for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding”
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a standard technique that provides direct visualization of the gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus through the stomach, duodenal bulb, and descending duodenum.
Continue reading “Appropriate Indications for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (UGE)”
The diagnosis of a Childhood Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder always presumes the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms.
G1a. Infant Regurgitation Continue reading “ROME II Diagnostic Criteria for Childhood Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders”