For the WHO caries assessment system, the examiner recorded a surface as decayed only if it presented with detectably softened floor, undermined enamel or a softened wall. According to this criterion, all the stages that precede cavitation as well as other conditions similar to the early stages of a carious lesion were considered sound.
For the ICDAS system, the D stands for detection of dental caries by (i) stage of the carious process; (ii) topography (pit and fissure or smooth surfaces); (iii) anatomy (crown vs roots); and (iv) restoration or sealant status. The A in the ICDAS stands for assessment of the carious process by the stage (non-cavitated or cavitated) and activity (active or arrested). This study does not include an assessment of the lesion activity or root caries.
Continue reading “Caries Detection with ICDAS and the WHO Criteria”
Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) (previously hyperplastic polyposis) is defined by number and size of serrated polyps in the colon and rectum, but the definition is purely arbitrary and there is no known genotype.
SPS is associated with a high risk of colorectal cancer, not only in the affected patient, but also family members. The carcinogenesis can be rapid, with several series describing interval cancers occurring quickly. Continue reading “WHO Criteria for Diagnosis of Serrated Polyposis Syndrome (SPS)”
Prefibrotic myelofibrosis (pre-PMF) is a distinct entity among chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm diagnosed according to the revised WHO classification. The clinical picture is heterogeneous, ranging from isolated thrombocytosis, mimicking essential thrombocythemia (ET), to symptoms of high-risk PMF. Continue reading “WHO Diagnostic Criteria for Prefibrotic or Early-Stage Myelofibrosis (pre-PMF)”
Essential Thrombocytosis (ET) is the only chronic myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) without a specific phenotype. Because isolated thrombocytosis can be the initial clinical manifestation of polycythemia vera (PV), primary myelofibrosis (PMF), or chronic myelogenous leukemia, ET is not only a diagnosis of exclusion, it should also not be considered a single disease entity. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Essential Thrombocytosis (ET)”
Semen analysis is the most important investigation of male subfertility. This is not a test for fertility but a guide for minimal standards of adequacy. What constitutes a ‘normal’ result has been a matter of debate, and recently the WHO normal ranges for semen parameters have changed.
Continue reading “WHO Normal Reference Ranges for Semen Quality”
The revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV are designed to assist in clinical management of HIV, especially where there is limited laboratory capacity. Continue reading “WHO Immunological Classification for Established HIV Infection”
WHO treatment guides for cancer pain provide explanations of the pathophysiology of such pain, how to make adequate assessments, how to choose analgesics, and how to use the ladder. Early studies on its effectiveness demonstrated that the method proposed by the WHO offered inexpensive treatment and adequate relief for 70% to 90% of cancer patients with pain. Continue reading “WHO Analgesic Ladder for Pain Management”
Systemic mastocytosis is a clonal disorder of the mast cell and its progenitor. The symptoms of systemic mastocytosis are due to the pathologic accumulation and activation of mast cells in various tissues such as bone marrow, skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and spleen.
Continue reading “WHO Classification of Mastocytosis”