Kocher identified four predictive factors that can aid in differentiating septic arthritis of the hip from transient synovitis. Fever >38.5 C, inability to bear weight, serum white blood cell count (WBC) >12,000/mm3, and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) ≥40 mm/h were found to be associated with septic arthritis of the hip. The presence of all four factors was 99.6% predictive of septic hip. Continue reading “Kocher Criteria for Septic Arthritis”
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years.
Continue reading “ILAR Classification Criteria for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)”
Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an inflammatory arthritis that arises after certain types of gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections. It belongs to the group of arthritidies known as the spondyloarthropathies (SpAs). The classic syndrome is a triad of symptoms, including the urethra, conjunctiva, and synovium; however, the majority of patients do not present with this classic triad. In general, there are two forms of ReA, postvenereal (Chlamydia trachomatis [Ct]) and postdysentery (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Yersinia), but several other bacteria have been implicated as potential causes.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Reiter´s Syndrome or Reactive Arthritides (ReA)”
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by joint swelling, joint tenderness, and destruction of synovial joints, leading to severe disability and premature mortality. Given the presence of autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti–citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (tested as anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide [anti-CCP]), which can precede the clinical manifestation of RA by many years, RA is considered an autoimmune disease.
A joint working group of the ACR and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) was therefore formed to develop a new approach for classification of RA.
Continue reading “The 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification Criteria for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)”
Psoriatic arthritis is a type of arthritis that develops in some people with the skin condition psoriasis. It typically causes affected joints to become inflamed (swollen), stiff and painful.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA)”
- Initiating treatment with methotrexate or Arava (leflunomide) was recommended for most rheumatoid arthritis patients.
- Methotrexate plus Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine) was recommended for rheumatoid arthritis patients with moderate to high disease activity.
Continue reading “The 2008 ACR Recommendations for Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatments”
Acute gouty arthritis is a sudden attack of pain in the joints, especially in the feet and legs, that occur when uric acid builds up in the joints.
Continue reading “Criteria for the Classification of Acute Gouty Arthritis”
For classification purposes, a patient is said to have RA if he or she has satisfied at least 4 of the following 7 criteria. Criteria 1 through 4 must have been present for at least 6 weeks. Patients with 2 clinical diagnoses are not excluded. Designation as classic, definite, or probable RA is not to be made.
Continue reading “Revised ARA Criteria for the Classification of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)”