Criteria for Neurosurgical or Neuroradiologic Intervention for Mold Infections of the Central Nervous System (CNS)

The clinical characteristics of mold infections of the CNS warrant assessment for possible biopsy and neurosurgical intervention. A definitive diagnosis almost invariably requires a biopsy, with prompt inspection of the specimen by means of wet-mount preparation with calcofluor white stain, culture, and histologic analysis (with Gomori methenamine silver stain and periodic acid–Schiff stain). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful if cultures of biopsy specimens are negative.
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