Preoperative anxiety is a frequent and challenging problem with deleterious effects on the development of surgical procedures and postoperative outcomes. To prevent and treat preoperative anxiety effectively, the level of anxiety of patients needs to be assessed through valid and reliable measuring instruments. One such measurement tool is the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS). Continue reading
The numeric rating scale (NRS) is a single 11-point numeric scale broadly validated across myriad patient types. Data obtained via NRS are easily documented, intuitively interpretable, and meet regulatory requirements for pain assessment and documentation. Continue reading
Arteriovenous malformations of the brain are congenital anomalies of the blood vessels that are derived from maldevelopment of the capillary network, allowing direct connections between cerebral arteries and veins. The most common presenting symptoms are cerebral hemorrhage and seizures. Focal neurologic deficits and headaches may develop independent of cerebral bleeding. As a result of the widespread use of brain imaging, arteriovenous malformations are increasingly being discovered incidentally.
The Hachinski ischemic score (HIS) is known to be a simple clinical tool, currently used for differentiating major types of dementia, such as primary degenerative, vascular or multi-infarct, and mixed type.
The FAST scale is a functional scale designed to evaluate patients at the more moderate-severe stages of dementia when the MMSE no longer can reflect changes in a meaningful clinical way.
The Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS) was designed to measure the level of patient activity and medical care requirements. It is a general measure of patient independence and has been widely used as a general assessment of patient with cancer.
Instructions: This scale is intended to record your own assessment of any sleep difficulty you might have experienced. Please, check (by circling the appropriate number) the items below to indicate your estimate of any difficulty, provided that it occurred at least three times per week during the last month.
The muscle scale grades muscle power on a scale of 0 to 5 in relation to the maximum expected for that muscle.
The levels in this new diabetic retinopathy disease severity scale consist of five scales with increasing risks of retinopathy.