The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms “impaired control” paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.
Proposed diagnostic criteria for smartphone addiction
Criteria A: Maladaptive pattern of smartphone use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, occurring at any time within the same 3-month period. Three (or more) of the following symptoms having been present:
- Recurrent failure to resist the impulse to use the smartphone
- Withdrawal: as manifested by dysphoria, anxiety and/or irritability after a period without smartphone use
- Smartphone use for a period longer than intended
- Persistent desire and/or unsuccessful attempts to quit or reduce smartphone use
- Excessive time spent on using or quitting the smartphone use
- Continued excessive smartphone use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem resulting from smartphone overuse
Criteria B: Functional impairment, two (or more) of the following symptoms have been present
- Excessive smartphone use resulting in persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem
- Smartphone use in a physically hazardous situation (e.g., smartphone use while driving, or crossing the street), or having other negative impacts on daily life
- Smartphone use resulting in impairment of social relationships, school achievement, or job performance
- Excessive smartphone use causes significant subjective distress, or is time-consuming
Criteria C: Exclusion criteria
The smartphone addictive behavior is not better accounted for by obsessive–compulsive disorder or by bipolar I disorder.
Both criteria A and B must be present for the diagnosis of smartphone addiction.
- Lin YH, Chiang CL, Lin PH, et al. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0163010. [Medline]
- Horvath J, Mundinger C, Schmitgen MM, et al. Structural and functional correlates of smartphone addiction [published online ahead of print, 2020 Feb 1]. Addict Behav. 2020;105:106334. [Medline]
Created Feb 26, 2020.