The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) recently reviewed risk factors and developed objective major and minor criteria to identify patients who require direct admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The most up-to-date definitions use need for invasive mechanical ventilation or septic shock, requiring vasopressors, as absolute indicators for direct admission to an ICU. For patients who do not meet either of these two major criteria, minor criteria have been proposed that are based on CURB-65 and ATS criteria with new additions. For admission to an ICU or high level unit, patients must fulfill at least three of these minor criteria.
Guidelines for urinary indices whereby established Acute Renal Failure (ARF) can be distinguished from renal vasoconstriction with intact tubular function (prerenal azotemia).
Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular condition predisposing affected patients to stroke in association with progressive stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries and their proximal branches. Continue reading