Diagnosis of Inhalation Injury

Inhalation injury can feature supraglottic thermal injury, chemical irritation of the respiratory tract, systemic toxicity due to agents such as carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide, or a combination of these insults. The resultant inflammatory response may cause higher fluid resuscitation volumes, progressive pulmonary dysfunction, prolonged
ventilator days, increased risk of pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Continue reading

Diagnosis and Severity Criteria for Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome/Veno-Occlusive Disease in Children

Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) is a life-threatening complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) that belongs to a group of diseases increasingly identified as transplant-related, systemic endothelial diseases. In most cases, SOS/VOD resolves within weeks; however, severe SOS/VOD results in multi-organ dysfunction/failure with a mortality rate >80%. Continue reading

Guidelines for Diagnosis of the Lynch Syndrome

The Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited syndrome associated with colorectal cancer, accounting for 3% of new diagnoses; it is also associated with extracolonic cancers, the most common of which is endometrial cancer.
The Lynch syndrome phenotype includes a propensity for cancers of the proximal colon, poor tumor differentiation with mucinous or signet-ring cell histologic features or a medullary growth pattern, abundant infiltrating lymphocytes in the tumor, and synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancers. Continue reading

Diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus (DI)

Diabetes insipidus is a disease in which large volumes of dilute urine (polyuria) are excreted due to vasopressin (AVP) deficiency [central diabetes insipidus (CDI)], AVP resistance [nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)], or excessive water intake (primary polydipsia). Polyuria is characterized by a urine volume in excess of 2 l/m2/24 h or approximately 150 ml/kg/24 h at birth, 100–110 ml/kg/24 h until the age of 2 years and 40–50 ml/kg/24 h in the older child and adult. Continue reading

Diagnosis of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

In overt hyperthyroidism, serum levels of free T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) or levels of T3 alone are elevated, and serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels are suppressed. In subclinical hyperthyroidism, levels of free T4 and T3 are normal, thyrotropin levels are suppressed, and thyroid hormone levels are usually in the middle to upper range of normal. Continue reading

Criteria for the Diagnosis of POEMS Syndrome

POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome due to an underlying plasma cell disorder (PCD). The acronym, which was coined by Bardwick in 1980, refers to several, but not all, of the features of the syndrome: polyradiculoneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal PCD, and skin changes. Continue reading

Revised Criteria for Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association (NIA-AA) charged a workgroup with the task of developing criteria for the symptomatic predementia phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), referred to in this article as mild cognitive impairment due to AD.  Continue reading