Vasospastic angina (VSA) is a variant form of angina pectoris, in which angina occurs at rest, with transient electrocardiogram modifications and preserved exercise capacity. VSA can be involved in many clinical scenarios, such as stable angina, sudden cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia or syncope. Continue reading
A classification has been proposed by Braunwald to facilitate the assignation of patients to a particular risk group. This classification takes into account the severity of symptoms, the clinical circumstances surrounding the anginal episode, and the intensity of treatment.
The criteria for chronic stable refractory angina were defined by Mannheimer and colleagues in 2002 as “a chronic condition characterized by the presence of angina caused by coronary insufficiency in the presence of coronary artery disease which cannot be controlled by a combination of medical therapy, angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery. The presence of reversible myocardial ischemia should be clinically established to be the cause of the symptoms. Chronic is defined as a duration of more than 3 months. Continue reading
No angina with ordinary physical activity (e.g., walking, climbing stairs). Angina with strenuous or prolonged exertion.
Early-onset limitation of ordinary activity (e.g., walking rapidly or walking >2 blocks; climbing stairs rapidly or climbing >1 flight); angina may be worse after meals, in cold temperatures, or with emotional stress.