The Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) Consortium has refined its recommendations about the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of DLB, updating the previous report, which has been in widespread use for the last decade. The revised DLB consensus criteria now distinguish clearly between clinical features and diagnostic biomarkers, and give guidance about optimal methods to establish and interpret these. Continue reading →
The prerequisite to apply the Movement Disorder Society (MDS-PD) criteria is the diagnosis of parkinsonism, which is based on three cardinal motor manifestations. Parkinsonism is defined as bradykinesia, in combination with either rest tremor, rigidity, or both. These features must be clearly demonstrable and not attributable to confounding factors. Continue reading →
Cryoglobulinemia is usually classified into three subgroups according to Ig composition: type I cryoglobulinemia is composed of only one isotype or subclass of immunoglobulin. Both type II and type III mixed cryoglobulins are immune complexes composed of polyclonal IgGs, the autoantigens, and mono- or polyclonal IgMs, respectively; the IgMs are the corresponding autoantibodies with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. Continue reading →
Acute bacterial sinusitis in children is diagnosed on the basis of the history, with the use of the criteria. Imaging studies (plain-film radiography, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and ultrasonography) show signs of sinus inflammation but are not recommended in patients with uncomplicated infection, given the low specificity of these studies. Continue reading →
The red blood cell transfusions should not be dictated by a single hemoglobin “trigger” but instead should be based on the patient’s risks of developing complications of inadequate oxygenation. Red blood cell transfusion is rarely indicated when the hemoglobin concentration is greater than 10 g/dL and is almost always indicated when it is less than 6 g/dL.
The diagnosis of rheumatologic diseases is based on clinical information, blood and imaging tests, and in some cases on histology. Blood tests are useful in confirming clinically suspected diagnosis and monitoring the disease activity. The tests should be used as adjuncts to a comprehensive history and physical examination. Continue reading →