The MMSE is an easily administered 30-point test of cognitive function and contains tests of orientation, working and episodic memory, language comprehension, naming, and copying.
Section 1: Pain Intensity
- I have no pain at the moment. [0 points]
- The pain is very mild at the moment. [1 point]
- The pain is moderate at the moment. [2 points]
- The pain is fairly severe at the moment. [3 points]
- The pain is very severe at the moment. [4 points]
- The pain is the worst imaginable at the moment. [5 points]
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been known by many names, but most commonly as reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia (as attributed to Evans and Mitchell, respectively). In the past, it was diagnosed using a variety of nonstandardized and idiosyncratic diagnostic systems. The name was ultimately changed to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) at a consensus workshop in Orlando, Florida, in 1994, with the new name and diagnostic criteria codified by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) task force on taxonomy.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the reactivation of a ubiquitous polyomavirus JC (JCV). PML was for many years a rare disease occurring only in patients with underlying severe impaired immunity.
Zerr et al. modifying the current clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic CJD to include the detection of either hyperintensity in the basal ganglia (both caudate nucleus and putamen) or in at least two cortical regions (from either the temporal, parietal or occipital cerebral cortices). This implies that the detection of the specified high signal abnormalities in FLAIR or DWI MRI will be considered at the same level of diagnostic importance as periodic sharp wave complexes on the EEG or 14-3-3 protein detection in the CSF
These criteria are applied by testing the median, ulnar (stimulated below the elbow), peroneal (stimulated below the fibular head), and tibial nerves on one side of the body. During testing, limb temperature should be no less than 33°C at the palm and no less than 30°C at the external malleolus.
Small fiber neuropathy manifests in a variety of different diseases and often results in symptoms of burning pain, shooting pain, allodynia, and hyperesthesia.
Bell’s palsy is a peripheral palsy of the facial nerve that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face.
Clinical Criteria for Brain Death in Adults and Children
- Absence of motor responses
- Absence of pupillary responses to light and pupils at midposition with respect to dilatation (4–6 mm)
- Absence of corneal reflexes
- Absence of caloric responses
- Absence of gag reflex
- Absence of coughing in response to tracheal suctioning
- Absence of sucking and rooting reflexes
- Absence of respiratory drive at a PaCO2 that is 60 mm Hg or 20 mm Hg above normal base-line values*
- Interval between two evaluations, according to patient’s age Continue reading
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a brief but intense attack of inflammation (swelling) in the brain and spinal cord and occasionally the optic nerves that damages the brain’s myelin (the white coating of nerve fibers).