Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been known by many names, but most commonly as reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia (as attributed to Evans and Mitchell, respectively). In the past, it was diagnosed using a variety of nonstandardized and idiosyncratic diagnostic systems. The name was ultimately changed to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) at a consensus workshop in Orlando, Florida, in 1994, with the new name and diagnostic criteria codified by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) task force on taxonomy. Continue reading →
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the reactivation of a ubiquitous polyomavirus JC (JCV). PML was for many years a rare disease occurring only in patients with underlying severe impaired immunity. Continue reading →
Zerr et al. modifying the current clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic CJD to include the detection of either hyperintensity in the basal ganglia (both caudate nucleus and putamen) or in at least two cortical regions (from either the temporal, parietal or occipital cerebral cortices). This implies that the detection of the specified high signal abnormalities in FLAIR or DWI MRI will be considered at the same level of diagnostic importance as periodic sharp wave complexes on the EEG or 14-3-3 protein detection in the CSF Continue reading →
These criteria are applied by testing the median, ulnar (stimulated below the elbow), peroneal (stimulated below the fibular head), and tibial nerves on one side of the body. During testing, limb temperature should be no less than 33°C at the palm and no less than 30°C at the external malleolus.
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a brief but intense attack of inflammation (swelling) in the brain and spinal cord and occasionally the optic nerves that damages the brain’s myelin (the white coating of nerve fibers).