The death of a loved one is one of life’s greatest, universal stressors to which most bereaved individuals successfully adapt without clinical intervention. For a minority of bereaved individuals, grief is complicated by superimposed problems and healing does not occur. The resulting syndrome of complicated grief causes substantial distress and functional impairment even years after a loss, yet knowing when and how to intervene can be a challenge.
The criteria for withdrawal delirium, are delirium (a rapid-onset fluctuating disturbance of attention and cognition, sometimes with hallucinations) plus alcohol withdrawal.
The diagnostic criteria for major depression in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), require the presence of either sadness or anhedonia with a total of five or more symptoms over a 2-week period.
Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from increased CNS serotonergic activity that is usually drug related. Symptoms may include mental status changes, hyperthermia, and autonomic and neuromuscular hyperactivity.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by obsessions or compulsions (or both) that are distressing, time-consuming, or substantially impairing.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity that emerge in childhood.
The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) provides standardized criteria to help diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).
Tourette’s syndrome (sometimes called Tourette’s disorder) is a childhood-onset condition characterized by motor and vocal tics that are chronic (duration of >1 year).
Narcolepsy is a disorder of impaired expression of wakefulness and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. This manifests as excessive daytime sleepiness and expression of individual physiological correlates of REM sleep that include cataplexy and sleep paralysis (REM sleep atonia intruding into wakefulness), impaired maintenance of REM sleep atonia (e.g. REM sleep behaviour disorder [RBD]), and dream imagery intruding into wakefulness (e.g. hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations). Excessive sleepiness typically begins in the second or third decade followed by expression of auxiliary symptoms.
Borderline personality disorder is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by marked impulsivity, instability of mood and interpersonal relationships, and suicidal behaviour that can complicate medical care. Identifying this diagnosis is important for treatment planning.