Since the first cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in the United States in 1981, surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (the cause of AIDS) and AIDS have undergone several revisions to respond to diagnostic advances. Continue reading
The revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV are designed to assist in clinical management of HIV, especially where there is limited laboratory capacity. Continue reading
Endoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease. Apart from exclusion of malignant disease, detection of H pylori infection with histology or rapid urease tests is essential to the subsequent treatment plan. Continue reading
Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) is a Gram-positive, sporeforming bacterium usually spread by the fecal-oral route. It is non-invasive and produces toxins A and B that cause disease, ranging from asymptomatic carriage, to mild diarrhea, to colitis, or pseudomembranous colitis. CDI is defined as the acute onset of diarrhea with documented toxigenic C. difficile or its toxin and no other documented cause for diarrhea.
Zika virus is spread to people through mosquito bites. The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting from several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon.
Chronic HBV infection is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver caused by persistent infection with HBV, and can be categorized as hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive or negative. Inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers have HBV infection of the liver without significant, ongoing necroinflammatory disease. HBV infection is resolved when there is no further virologic, biochemical, or histologic evidence of active viral infection or disease.
Cierny and Mader classified osteomyelitis based on the affected portion of the bone, the physiologic status of the host and the local environment. This classification lends itself to the treatment and prognosis of osteomyelitis; stage 1 (medullary osteomyelitis) can usually be treated with antibiotics alone, while stages 2, 3 and 4 (superficial, localized and diffuse osteomyelitis) usually require aggressive debridement, antimicrobial therapy and subsequent orthopedic reconstruction.
Since both clinically and biochemically, acute hepatitis due to HAV cannot be distinguished from that due to the other hepatitis viruses, serologic tests are necessary for a virus-specific diagnosis.
The antigens and antibodies associated with HBV infection include HBsAg (Australia antigen) and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) and antibody to HBcAg (anti-HBc), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe). At least one serologic marker is present during the different phases of HBV infection.