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Unifying Concepts

Braunwald Classification of Unstable Angina (UA)

A classification has been proposed by Braunwald to facilitate the assignation of patients to a particular risk group. This classification takes into account the severity of symptoms, the clinical circumstances surrounding the anginal episode, and the intensity of treatment.

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1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded AIDS Surveillance Case Definition for Adolescents and Adults

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Criteria for Chronic Stable Refractory Angina

The criteria for chronic stable refractory angina were defined by Mannheimer and colleagues in 2002 as “a chronic condition characterized by the presence of angina caused by coronary insufficiency in the presence of coronary artery disease which cannot be controlled by a combination of medical therapy, angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery. The presence of reversible myocardial ischemia should be clinically established to be the cause of the symptoms. Chronic is defined as a duration of more than 3 months. Continue reading “Criteria for Chronic Stable Refractory Angina”

Classification and Severity of Angina

Class I

No angina with ordinary physical activity (e.g., walking, climbing stairs). Angina with strenuous or prolonged exertion.

Class II

Early-onset limitation of ordinary activity (e.g., walking rapidly or walking >2 blocks; climbing stairs rapidly or climbing >1 flight); angina may be worse after meals, in cold temperatures, or with emotional stress.

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Serum Levels That Differentiate Anemia of Chronic Disease from Iron-Deficiency Anemia

Iron deficiency anemia develops when body stores of iron drop too low to support normal red blood cell (RBC) production. Inadequate dietary iron, impaired iron absorption, bleeding, or loss of body iron in the urine may be the cause.

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El Escorial Criteria for the Diagnosis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

The diagnosis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) requires

A. the presence of:
(A:1) evidence of lower motor neuron (LMN) degeneration by clinical, electrophysiological or neuropathologic examination,
(A:2) evidence of upper motor neuron (UMN) degeneration by clinical examination, and
(A:3) progressive spread of symptoms or signs within a region or to other regions, as determined by history or examination, together with

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Diagnostic Criteria for Amiodarone-Induced Pulmonary Toxicity (APT)

The clinical diagnosis of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (APT) requires two or more of the following criteria:

  1. new onset of pulmonary symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, or pleuritic chest pain;
  2. new chest radiographic abnormality such as an interstitial or alveolar infiltrate;
  3. a decrease in the DLCO of 20% from the pretreatment value, or if none is available, a value less than 80% of predicted;
  4. abnormal lung uptake with gallium-67 radioisotope; and
  5. characteristic histologic changes of lung tissue obtained by bronchoscopic or open lung biopsy.

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Definition and Causes of Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTE)

Definition of ALTE

By definition, an ALTE refers to a sudden event, often characterized by apnea or other abrupt changes in the child’s behavior. Symptoms of an ALTE include one or more of the following: apnea, change in color or muscle tone, coughing, or gagging.

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